28 July 1995

Waterworld

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waterworld



This article is about the 1995 film. For the theoretical type of planet, see ocean planet. For other uses, see Water World.


Release date: July 28, 1995


Running time

135 minutes[1]

Budget

$172–175 million[2][3]

Box office

$264.2 million[3]


Waterworld is a 1995 American post-apocalyptic action film directed by Kevin Reynolds and co-written by Peter Rader and David Twohy. It was based on Rader's original 1986 screenplay and stars Kevin Costner, who also produced it with Charles Gordon and John Davis. It was distributed by Universal Pictures.

The setting of the film is in the distant future. The polar ice cap has completely melted, and the sea level has risen over 7,600 m (25,000 ft), covering nearly all of the land. The plot of the film centers on an otherwise nameless antihero, "The Mariner", a drifter who sails the Earth in his trimaran.

The most expensive film ever made at the time, Waterworld was released to mixed reviews, praising the futuristic setting and premise but criticizing the characterization and acting performances. The film also was unable to recoup its massive budget at the box office; however, the film did later become profitable due to video and other post-cinema sales. The film was also nominated for an Academy Award in the category Best Sound at the 68th Academy Awards.

The film's release was accompanied by a novelizationvideo game, and three themed attractions at Universal Studios HollywoodUniversal Studios Singapore, and Universal Studios Japan called Waterworld: A Live Sea War Spectacular, all of which are still running as of 2020.

Plot[edit]

In 2500[4], as a result of the sea levels rising over 7,600 metres (25,000 feet), every continent on Earth is now underwater. The remains of human civilization live on ramshackle floating communities known as atolls, having long forgotten about living on land. People believe that there is a mythological "Dryland" somewhere in the endless ocean.

The Mariner (Kevin Costner), a lone drifter, arrives on his trimaran to trade dirt, a rare commodity, for other supplies. The atoll's residents see that the Mariner is a mutant with gills and webbed feet and decide to drown him in the atoll's recycling pit, a kind of liquid compost facility. Just then, the atoll is attacked by the Smokers, a gang of pirates seeking a girl named Enola (Tina Majorino) who, according to their leader the Deacon (Dennis Hopper), has a map to Dryland tattooed on her back. Enola's guardian Helen (Jeanne Tripplehorn) attempts to escape with Enola on a gas balloon with Gregor (Michael Jeter), an inventor, but the balloon is released too early. Helen instead frees the Mariner and insists that he take the two of them with him.

The three escape to open sea aboard the trimaran. They are pursued by the Smokers; they escape, but Helen's naïve actions result in damage to the Mariner's boat. He angrily cuts her hair, and then Enola's. Helen explains that she believes humans once lived on land and demands to know where the Mariner collected his dirt. He provides her with a diving bell and dives with her underwater, showing the remains of a city and the dirt on the ocean's floor, affirming Helen's belief. When they surface, they find that the Smokers have caught up to them, threatening to kill them if they do not reveal Enola, who is hiding aboard the boat. The Smokers abduct Enola and try to kill Helen and the Mariner. The Mariner takes Helen, and they dive underwater to avoid capture, with the gilled Mariner helping Helen breathe. When they surface, they find that his boat has been destroyed. Gregor manages to catch up to and rescue them, and he takes them to a new makeshift atoll inhabited by the survivors of the first attack.

The Mariner takes a captured Smoker's jet ski to chase down the Deacon aboard the hulk of the Exxon Valdez. With most of the Smokers below deck to row the tanker, the Mariner confronts the Deacon, threatening to ignite the reserves of oil still on the tanker unless he returns Enola. The Deacon calls the Mariner's bluff, knowing that would destroy the ship, but, to his surprise, the Mariner drops a flare into the oil. The ship's lower decks are engulfed in fire, and the ship starts to sink. The Mariner rescues Enola and escapes via a rope from Gregor's balloon with Helen and the Atoll Enforcer aboard. As the Mariner brings Enola to Helen, the Deacon manages to grab the rope to escape the sinking ship. He is kicked off into the water, but climbs aboard a jet ski. He fires upon the balloon, shaking Enola from the balloon and into the ocean. As The Deacon and some of his men converge on Enola to capture her, the Mariner makes an impromptu bungee jump from the balloon to grab Enola right before the Deacon and his men collide and die in the explosion.

Sometime later, Gregor has been able to identify the tattoo on Enola's back as coordinates with reversed directions. Following the map, Gregor, the Mariner, the Atoll Enforcer, Helen, and Enola discover Dryland, the top of Mount Everest, filled with vegetation and wildlife. They also find a crude hut with the remains of Enola's parents. Realizing he does not belong on Dryland, the Mariner decides that he cannot stay as the sea calls to him. He takes a wooden sailboat and departs as Helen and Enola bid him farewell.

28 July 1995

Waterworld

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waterworld



This article is about the 1995 film. For the theoretical type of planet, see ocean planet. For other uses, see Water World.


Release date: July 28, 1995


Running time

135 minutes[1]

Budget

$172–175 million[2][3]

Box office

$264.2 million[3]


Waterworld is a 1995 American post-apocalyptic action film directed by Kevin Reynolds and co-written by Peter Rader and David Twohy. It was based on Rader's original 1986 screenplay and stars Kevin Costner, who also produced it with Charles Gordon and John Davis. It was distributed by Universal Pictures.

The setting of the film is in the distant future. The polar ice cap has completely melted, and the sea level has risen over 7,600 m (25,000 ft), covering nearly all of the land. The plot of the film centers on an otherwise nameless antihero, "The Mariner", a drifter who sails the Earth in his trimaran.

The most expensive film ever made at the time, Waterworld was released to mixed reviews, praising the futuristic setting and premise but criticizing the characterization and acting performances. The film also was unable to recoup its massive budget at the box office; however, the film did later become profitable due to video and other post-cinema sales. The film was also nominated for an Academy Award in the category Best Sound at the 68th Academy Awards.

The film's release was accompanied by a novelizationvideo game, and three themed attractions at Universal Studios HollywoodUniversal Studios Singapore, and Universal Studios Japan called Waterworld: A Live Sea War Spectacular, all of which are still running as of 2020.

Plot[edit]

In 2500[4], as a result of the sea levels rising over 7,600 metres (25,000 feet), every continent on Earth is now underwater. The remains of human civilization live on ramshackle floating communities known as atolls, having long forgotten about living on land. People believe that there is a mythological "Dryland" somewhere in the endless ocean.

The Mariner (Kevin Costner), a lone drifter, arrives on his trimaran to trade dirt, a rare commodity, for other supplies. The atoll's residents see that the Mariner is a mutant with gills and webbed feet and decide to drown him in the atoll's recycling pit, a kind of liquid compost facility. Just then, the atoll is attacked by the Smokers, a gang of pirates seeking a girl named Enola (Tina Majorino) who, according to their leader the Deacon (Dennis Hopper), has a map to Dryland tattooed on her back. Enola's guardian Helen (Jeanne Tripplehorn) attempts to escape with Enola on a gas balloon with Gregor (Michael Jeter), an inventor, but the balloon is released too early. Helen instead frees the Mariner and insists that he take the two of them with him.

The three escape to open sea aboard the trimaran. They are pursued by the Smokers; they escape, but Helen's naïve actions result in damage to the Mariner's boat. He angrily cuts her hair, and then Enola's. Helen explains that she believes humans once lived on land and demands to know where the Mariner collected his dirt. He provides her with a diving bell and dives with her underwater, showing the remains of a city and the dirt on the ocean's floor, affirming Helen's belief. When they surface, they find that the Smokers have caught up to them, threatening to kill them if they do not reveal Enola, who is hiding aboard the boat. The Smokers abduct Enola and try to kill Helen and the Mariner. The Mariner takes Helen, and they dive underwater to avoid capture, with the gilled Mariner helping Helen breathe. When they surface, they find that his boat has been destroyed. Gregor manages to catch up to and rescue them, and he takes them to a new makeshift atoll inhabited by the survivors of the first attack.

The Mariner takes a captured Smoker's jet ski to chase down the Deacon aboard the hulk of the Exxon Valdez. With most of the Smokers below deck to row the tanker, the Mariner confronts the Deacon, threatening to ignite the reserves of oil still on the tanker unless he returns Enola. The Deacon calls the Mariner's bluff, knowing that would destroy the ship, but, to his surprise, the Mariner drops a flare into the oil. The ship's lower decks are engulfed in fire, and the ship starts to sink. The Mariner rescues Enola and escapes via a rope from Gregor's balloon with Helen and the Atoll Enforcer aboard. As the Mariner brings Enola to Helen, the Deacon manages to grab the rope to escape the sinking ship. He is kicked off into the water, but climbs aboard a jet ski. He fires upon the balloon, shaking Enola from the balloon and into the ocean. As The Deacon and some of his men converge on Enola to capture her, the Mariner makes an impromptu bungee jump from the balloon to grab Enola right before the Deacon and his men collide and die in the explosion.

Sometime later, Gregor has been able to identify the tattoo on Enola's back as coordinates with reversed directions. Following the map, Gregor, the Mariner, the Atoll Enforcer, Helen, and Enola discover Dryland, the top of Mount Everest, filled with vegetation and wildlife. They also find a crude hut with the remains of Enola's parents. Realizing he does not belong on Dryland, the Mariner decides that he cannot stay as the sea calls to him. He takes a wooden sailboat and departs as Helen and Enola bid him farewell.

24 February 1984


The Noah's Ark Principle 
The end of our future has already begun


First screened: 1984

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Noah%27s_Ark_Principle

A 1984 science fiction film written and directed by Roland Emmerich for his thesis at the Munich University of Television and Film. While his fellow students typically raised and spent circa £19,000 for their final work, Emmerich managed to raise a budget of circa £470,000 for his film.

Plot
The year is 1997 and world peace seems to have come, with most weapons of mass destruction abandoned. Orbiting the Earth, however, is the European/ American space station Florida ArkLab, capable of controlling the weather at any location on planet Earth below.

Although a civil project by nature, it could be abused as an offensive weapon by delivering devastation to any potential adversary simply by creating natural disasters such as storms and floods. The space station soon becomes the central point in rising political tensions between East and West, presaging World War 3. The film follows an astronaut aboard the station trying to tell friend from foe as he uncovers a plot of secrecy and sabotage.

24 February 1984

​23 May 2020

Stefan Rahmstorf
Professor of Physics of the Oceans
Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research
Stefan Ramstorf

Who he and what can we learn from him?
304 views

28 May 2004

The Day After Tomorrow

This 2004 Hollywood blockbuster is about a paleoclimatologist who discovers a huge ice sheet has been sheared off in Antartica, an event that will trigger a massive climate shift affecting the world population.

After a series of worldwide weather-related disasters, people soon realise that the world is going to enter a new ice age, triggering a mass evacutation of the world population from freezing cold temperatures in the north to the warm climates of the south.

Next Movie: The Day after the Covid-19!

​23 May 2020

Stefan Rahmstorf
Professor of Physics of the Oceans
Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research
What's the matter with the Atlantic Overturning Circulation?
304 views

Mallen Baker. Who he?

Mallen's an English commentator on the responsibility of big business to us as ordinary people, who benefit or suffer from decisions they make in ramping up profits for their shareholders. But wait a minute! Many of their major shareholders are working for us to safeguard our health and pensions in larter year, How come to make sure there's enough money in the kitty to pay our pensions when we retire or qoeking for uspension company's 


leand a former politician. Based in Sheffield, Baker worked as a freelance writer and became active in the Green Party of England and Wales. He served as co-chair of the party in 1990–1991, and also as a speaker for the party. Wikipedia



8 Mar 2020

Are sea levels really rising because of climate change?
14,074 views 
Mallen Baker 10.4K subscribers
Some are saying that sea level rise is accelerating. Some show graphs like this and say that, on the contrary, it is remarkably steady. Some, like James Hansen, suggest that sea level rise could make the planet “practically ungovernable”. Others suggest significant change, but within the bounds of what we have already seen in human history.
How can there be so many different versions of something that should be so simple? Let's dive into the evidence and see what we find.
The Mallen Baker Show is aimed at all people who see themselves as change makers, with commentary on issues and change movements with a particular focus on climate change and environment, social issues, free speech and corporate social responsibility.

The selection of videos, articles and announcements below trace the rise in public concern over the last 36 years from the 1984 film "The Noah's Ark Principle" to the 2020  reports this year from Stefan Rahmsdort,
Professor of Physics of the Oceans. at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research.

​8 May 2020

Stefan Rahmstorf
Professor of Physics of the Oceans
Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research
New Sea Level Study
Sea Level Rise Survey 2020
840 views

Climate change 
Wikipedia

Climate change includes both the global warming driven by human emissions of greenhouse gases, and the resulting large-scale shifts in weather patterns.

Stefan Rahmsdort
Professor of Physics of the Oceans
Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research
New Sea Level Study
Sea Level Rise Survey 2020
840 views • 8 May 2020

Climate change 
Wikipedia

Climate change includes both the global warming driven by human emissions of greenhouse gases, and the resulting large-scale shifts in weather patterns.

​​23 April 2019

Year 2100: redrawing the world’s coasts

Climate change will cost cities

https://www.theverge.com/2019/4/23/18511662/coastal-cities-sea-level-rise-cost-new-york-resiliency


By Mary Beth Griggs 

​Science Editor at The Verge. Previously writer and editor at Popular Science.


This is what sea level rise will do to coastal cities

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6tesHVSZJOg (see above)


By the year 2100, swollen seas and rivers will redraw shorelines as climbing temperatures melt ice caps. In one of the most extreme scenarios, waters globally could rise by as much as 8 feet (2.44 metres, and even a smaller amount of flooding would inundate low-lying areas of the coast. In places like New York, which is home to around 8.6 million people, even moderate flooding could drastically impact the city’s population and infrastructure.

The city got a taste of its future after Hurricane Sandy struck New York City in 2012. Soon afterward, the city announced several resiliency projects, which are all designed to keep water away from New York’s streets. While inspired (in part) by the dramatic onslaught of a storm, many of these projects are also designed to keep the Big Apple as dry as possible as sea level rise eats away at coasts around the world.

The latest plan involves spending circa £8 billion to extend part of Lower Manhattan out into the East River, in addition to shelling out hundreds of millions of dollars on other resiliency projects. Check out our video above to learn more about the city’s costly plans to protect its coasts.Type your paragraph here.

23 Apr 2019

This is what sea level rise will do to coastal cities
660,712 views
Verge Science  1.01M subscribers
Sea level rise is already redrawing coastlines around the world. What happens when the coast retreats through a major city? We look at how the world map will change in the year 2100, and what coastal cities can do to defend themselves.

​11 Apr 2020

Stefan Rahmstorf
Professor of Physics of the Oceans
Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research
Climate Change: What's That?
1,214 views
A short introduction by Prof. Stefan Rahmstorf for all people from the age of 12

Climate change 
Wikipedia
Climate change includes both the global warming driven by human emissions of greenhouse gases, and the resulting large-scale shifts in weather patterns.


​23 May 2020

Stefan Rahmstorf
Professor of Physics of the Oceans
Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research
Stefan Ramstorf

Who he and what can we learn from him? Stefan's no slouch, that's a fact! As a young sixty-year-old oceanographer, climatologist and Professor of Physics of the Oceans, you have to listen to what he has to say if you're keen to learn more about climate change....


​​​​​​​​Climate Science for Beginners Part 2





https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_change


Climate change


For a discussion of climate trends throughout Earth's history, see Climate variability and change. (below)


Climate change includes both the global warming driven by human emissions of greenhouse gases, and the resulting large-scale shifts in weather patterns.[1] Though there have been previous periods of climatic change, since the mid-20th century the rate of human impact on Earth's climate system and the global scale of that impact have been unprecedented.[2]


That human activity has caused climate change is not disputed by any scientific body of national or international standing.[3] The largest driver has been the emission of greenhouse gases, of which more than 90% are carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane.[4] Fossil fuel burning for energy consumption is the main source of these emissions, with additional contributions from agriculturedeforestation, and industrial processes.[5] Temperature rise is accelerated or tempered by climate feedbacks, such as loss of sunlight-reflecting snow and ice cover, increased water vapour (a greenhouse gas itself), and changes to land and ocean carbon sinks.


Because land surfaces heat faster than ocean surfaces, deserts are expanding and heat waves and wildfires are more common.[7] Surface temperature rise is greatest in the Arctic, where it has contributed to melting permafrost, and the retreat of glaciers and sea ice.[8] Increasing atmospheric energy and rates of evaporation cause more intense storms and weather extremes, which damage infrastructure and agriculture.[9] Rising temperatures are limiting ocean productivity and harming fish stocks in most parts of the globe.[10] Current and anticipated effects from undernutrition, heat stress and disease have led the World Health Organization to declare climate change the greatest threat to global health in the 21st century.[11] Environmental effects include the extinction or relocation of many species as their ecosystems change, most immediately in coral reefsmountains, and the Arctic.[12] Even if efforts to minimize future warming are successful, some effects will continue for centuries, including rising sea levels, rising ocean temperatures, and ocean acidification from elevated levels of CO2.[13]


Many of these effects are already observed at the current level of warming, which is about 1.1 °C (2.0 °F).[15] The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has issued a series of reports that project significant increases in these impacts as warming continues to 1.5 °C (2.7 °F) and beyond.[16] Under the Paris Agreement, nations agreed to keep warming "well under 2.0 °C (3.6 °F)" by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, under those pledges, global warming would reach about 2.8 °C (5.0 °F) by the end of the century, and current policies will result in about 3.0 °C (5.4 °F) of warming.[17] Limiting warming to 1.5 °C (2.7 °F) would require halving emissions by 2030, then reaching near-zero levels by 2050.[18]


Mitigation efforts include the research, development, and deployment of low-carbon energy technologies, enhanced energy efficiency, policies to reduce fossil fuel emissions, reforestation, and forest preservationClimate engineering techniques, most prominently solar radiation management and carbon dioxide removal, have substantial limitations and carry large uncertainties. Societies and governments are also working to adapt to current and future global-warming effects through improved coastline protection, better disaster management, and the development of more resistant crops.

Contents

===============================================================


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_variability_and_change

Climate variability and change

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


For the current rise in Earth's average temperature and its effects, see Climate change. (above)


Climate variability includes all the variations in the climate that last longer than individual weather events, whereas the term climate change only refers to those variations that persist for a longer period of time, typically decades or more. In the time since the industrial revolution the climate has increasingly been affected by human activities that are causing global warming and climate change.[1]


The climate system receives nearly all of its energy from the sun. The climate system also radiates energy to outer space. The balance of incoming and outgoing energy, and the passage of the energy through the climate system, determines Earth's energy budget. When the incoming energy is greater than the outgoing energy, earth's energy budget is positive and the climate system is warming. If more energy goes out, the energy budget is negative and earth experiences cooling.


The energy moving through Earth's climate system finds expression in weather, varying on geographic scales and time. Long-term averages and variability of weather in a region constitute the region's climate. Such changes can be the result of "internal variability", when natural processes inherent to the various parts of the climate system alter the distribution of energy. Examples include variability in ocean basins such as the Pacific decadal oscillation and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. Climate variability can also result from external forcing, when events outside of the climate system's components nonetheless produce changes within the system. Examples include changes in solar output and volcanism.


Climate variability has consequences for sea level changes, plant life, and mass extinctions; it also affects human societies.

Contents


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_change


Climate change


For a discussion of climate trends throughout Earth's history, see Climate variability and change. (below)


Climate change includes both the global warming driven by human emissions of greenhouse gases, and the resulting large-scale shifts in weather patterns.[1] Though there have been previous periods of climatic change, since the mid-20th century the rate of human impact on Earth's climate system and the global scale of that impact have been unprecedented.[2]


That human activity has caused climate change is not disputed by any scientific body of national or international standing.[3] The largest driver has been the emission of greenhouse gases, of which more than 90% are carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane.[4] Fossil fuel burning for energy consumption is the main source of these emissions, with additional contributions from agriculturedeforestation, and industrial processes.[5] Temperature rise is accelerated or tempered by climate feedbacks, such as loss of sunlight-reflecting snow and ice cover, increased water vapour (a greenhouse gas itself), and changes to land and ocean carbon sinks.


Because land surfaces heat faster than ocean surfaces, deserts are expanding and heat waves and wildfires are more common.[7] Surface temperature rise is greatest in the Arctic, where it has contributed to melting permafrost, and the retreat of glaciers and sea ice.[8] Increasing atmospheric energy and rates of evaporation cause more intense storms and weather extremes, which damage infrastructure and agriculture.[9] Rising temperatures are limiting ocean productivity and harming fish stocks in most parts of the globe.[10] Current and anticipated effects from undernutrition, heat stress and disease have led the World Health Organization to declare climate change the greatest threat to global health in the 21st century.[11] Environmental effects include the extinction or relocation of many species as their ecosystems change, most immediately in coral reefsmountains, and the Arctic.[12] Even if efforts to minimize future warming are successful, some effects will continue for centuries, including rising sea levels, rising ocean temperatures, and ocean acidification from elevated levels of CO2.[13]


Many of these effects are already observed at the current level of warming, which is about 1.1 °C (2.0 °F).[15] The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has issued a series of reports that project significant increases in these impacts as warming continues to 1.5 °C (2.7 °F) and beyond.[16] Under the Paris Agreement, nations agreed to keep warming "well under 2.0 °C (3.6 °F)" by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, under those pledges, global warming would reach about 2.8 °C (5.0 °F) by the end of the century, and current policies will result in about 3.0 °C (5.4 °F) of warming.[17] Limiting warming to 1.5 °C (2.7 °F) would require halving emissions by 2030, then reaching near-zero levels by 2050.[18]


Mitigation efforts include the research, development, and deployment of low-carbon energy technologies, enhanced energy efficiency, policies to reduce fossil fuel emissions, reforestation, and forest preservationClimate engineering techniques, most prominently solar radiation management and carbon dioxide removal, have substantial limitations and carry large uncertainties. Societies and governments are also working to adapt to current and future global-warming effects through improved coastline protection, better disaster management, and the development of more resistant crops.

Contents

===============================================================


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_variability_and_change

Climate variability and change

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


For the current rise in Earth's average temperature and its effects, see Climate change. (above)


Climate variability includes all the variations in the climate that last longer than individual weather events, whereas the term climate change only refers to those variations that persist for a longer period of time, typically decades or more. In the time since the industrial revolution the climate has increasingly been affected by human activities that are causing global warming and climate change.[1]


The climate system receives nearly all of its energy from the sun. The climate system also radiates energy to outer space. The balance of incoming and outgoing energy, and the passage of the energy through the climate system, determines Earth's energy budget. When the incoming energy is greater than the outgoing energy, earth's energy budget is positive and the climate system is warming. If more energy goes out, the energy budget is negative and earth experiences cooling.


The energy moving through Earth's climate system finds expression in weather, varying on geographic scales and time. Long-term averages and variability of weather in a region constitute the region's climate. Such changes can be the result of "internal variability", when natural processes inherent to the various parts of the climate system alter the distribution of energy. Examples include variability in ocean basins such as the Pacific decadal oscillation and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. Climate variability can also result from external forcing, when events outside of the climate system's components nonetheless produce changes within the system. Examples include changes in solar output and volcanism.


Climate variability has consequences for sea level changes, plant life, and mass extinctions; it also affects human societies.

Contents